Energy Conversions Inc.
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Technical Bulletin 0-007

Last Updated 3/2/99


System Information & Specifications
EMD 645 Dual Fuel Conversion Systems

This document describes various configurations for the ECI Dual-fuel conversion kit as it applies to the EMD 645 series industrial power engines. ECI conversion kits are designed to retrofit to a customer's new or existing engine. Contents for each kit include components which replace or are in addition to standard EMD parts.
Kits are supplied disassembled,with the exception of major electronic controls, to be assembled on site by customer and/or installation contractor.

Standard Rating Conditions

All engine ratings contained herein apply under the following conditions as specified in ISO 30461:

  • 77° F (25° C) air intake temperature
  • 29.61 in. Hg. (100 kPa) barometer
  • Diesel - 18, 054 BTU/lb. (42,000 kj/kg)
  • fuel (LHV)
  • Gas - 900 BTU/ft3 (LHV)
  • 6 in. H20 (1.49 kPa) air intake depression (max.)
  • 5 in. H2O (1.24 kPa) exhaust back pressure (max.)

Data supplied herein is based on a combination of test engine results, operating units in actual commercial applications, and projected estimations. ECI is confident in the accuracy of the data provided, however actual ratings may vary slightly.

Fuel Quality Requirements

Natural gas is composed principally of Methane (CH4), with smaller quantities of other hydrocarbons, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water. The quality of the natural gas used to fuel an ECI converted engine, with respect to its percentage makeup of component gases, will directly affect the power, efficiency, emissions, and longevity of the engine. As a general rule, higher methane content results in higher fuel quality. Of the hydrocarbons listed below, Butane is the most common variable to adversely affect engine performance. Hexane is more destructive than Butane, but is seldom seen at levels high enough to cause concern. In any case, maintaining hydrocarbon levels at or below indicated target levels is necessary for achieving rated power performance. Acceptable levels (in Molar percentages) for various component gases are described below, with the sum of all non-methane hydrocarbons not to exceed 8% of the total fuel mixture.

FUEL QUALITY REQUIREMENTS - NATURAL GAS
Element
Tolerance
Methane (CH4)
> 92%
NON- METHANE HYDROCARBONS (NMHC)
Ethane
< 8%
Propane
< 5%
ISO & N Butane,
Pentane,
Hexane,
Heptane,
Decane,
combined total
< 2%

An engine's full rated horsepower can be achieved and actually exceeded if the fuel mixture is equal to or better than the indicated tolerances. If percentage levels of elements other than methane are too high, and rated power is required, then a program must be implemented to scrub the fuel to desired levels.

To determine the power capacity limit of poor quality gases:

Propane + Ethane + (all remaining heavier hydrocarbons X 4) = % non-methane hydrocarbons.

See the graph provided for information relative to power limits of non-methane hydrocarbons.

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Turbo Aftercooling System

Extending the performance of the aftercooling circuit is required for rated power performance. Less than optimum aftercooling will result in a reduction of maximum power output. Target air temperature inside the engine is 125° F. See temperature derate curve for correction factors above 125°F.

Hardware Options

Certain applications require the use of modified cooling system design in order for the converted engine to run properly and produce fully rated output. Consult ECI concerning your particular project for more information.

ECI offers additional related hardware to help accurately monitor and improve your engine's performance.

  • ECI's Modem Diagnostics board, can be factory installed in your engine's main electronic control unit. It provides the ability to send engine monitoring information to an operational headquarters or back to ECI via a telephone signal, so that critical data may be gathered and studied while the engine is running.
  • An automated start up system, which carries out necessary system checks automatically and enables the operator to start the dual fuel engine at the push of a button.
  • ECI's Low Emission Idle (LEI) system runs right and left engine banks independently during the diesel-only mode to reduce excessive smoke which can occur under low load conditions. An excellent product for systems commonly encountering long standby times, LEI operates effectively on any standard EMD diesel as well.
  • An Engine Preheat systems is required for cold start situations, and is available through ECI. Heating the engine to 135° F is necessary for starting the engine without Ether.

Kit Components and Equipment Packaging

ECI conversion kits include: ECI pistons and cylinder heads; ECI Gas injectors; Pilot fuel (diesel) control system; Electronic Control Unit (ECU) and corresponding electronic components and software; Gas supply piping and necessary flow controls; Pneumatic controls, fittings and hoses; Wiring cabinets, harnesses, switches and diagrams; Water system aftercooling tanks, pumps and valves; and a complete Reference guide including Installation, Maintenance, and Parts documentation.

Basic packaging used on ECI equipment provides protection during domestic shipment only. For overseas shipment, export boxing is available for an additional cost.

All equipment, whether domestic or export, should be removed immediately from packing crates upon delivery and inspected for any possible shipping damage.

Delivery lead times may vary with quantity and configuration of orders. Please allow a minimum of 90 days from the date of purchase order received.

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Installation

Responsibility for proper installation, including machinery alignment, piping, electrical wiring, and testing, is the responsibility of the customer and or installation contractor. Upon request of the end customer, a final inspection and initial startup can be made by an ECI representative at the time of completion.

Technical Support

In addition to the supplied installation manual, reference manual, and video, ECI offers technical support in person and over the phone. ECI provides a complimentary service of 30-60 hours per engine as part of the conversion system purchase for inspection and a first time startup check. This service may be extended depending upon the number of units and complexity of the installation.

Information Required from the Customer

ECI requests a completed information questionnaire in order to submit accurate cost proposals. The questionnaire is located at the bottom of the Contact ECI page. The questions below are among the most pertinent listed on the actual questionnaire.

1. Is the application mobile or stationary?

2. What size is engine(s) and configurations?

3. How many units are to be converted?

4. Site location; state, country?

5. What is the quality and availability of natural gas to the application?

6. Which type of fuel source, pipeline, well head gas, or LNG, is most appropriate to the application and most readily available?

7. What are the expected ambient conditions (temperature and altitude) in which the engine will operate?

8. What is the time line of the project?

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ECI Conversion Specifications Tables

Note: Emissions numbers were derived from tests conducted by Southwest Research Institute in 1990-91. ECI has since optimized certain components (i.e. gas injectors, etc.) to enhance system performance. Recent test data from our facilities confirm further performance and emissions improvements, but have yet to be verified by a certified standards laboratory and thus is not publishable at this time.

Results shown are over a locomotive duty cycle, where idle and lower notches account for a significant percentage of the tests' duration. Consequently, the converted engine runs in full diesel mode when operating at these lower notch speeds. Thus, a majority of the total emissions over the duty cycle are created during these idle or lower throttle notch positions. Applications such as stationary generators, whose duty cycle is spent predominantly near full speed and load ranges will achieve even greater benefits in the amount of emissions reduced than is noted in the table below.

ROOTS BLOWN 645 EMD

ECI CONVERSION SPECIFICATIONS - EMD 645 ROOTS BLOWN DUAL FUEL ENGINE
ENGINE TYPE
645- DUAL FUEL ROOTS BLOWN
NUMBER OF CYLINDERS
8
12
16
RPM
750
900
750
900
750
900
BHP
800
1050
1200
1500
1700
2100
BKW
570
745
865
1075
1210.
1500
EFFICIENCY
BSFC in BTU/hp-hr
.
.
.
.
.
.
100% load
7050
7400
*7050
*74000
*7050.
*7400
75% load
7712
8250
*7712
*8250
*7712
*8250
50% load
9550
9950
*9550
*9950
*9550
*9950
AIR & EXHAUST SYSTEMS
Intake air temp (90oF) CFM
3040
3680
*4560
5050
***6080
6750
Exhaust temp in (oF)
750
790
*750
*780
*750
*780
Exh. volume @ Exh. temp CFM
**7550
**11000.
**14500
EMISSIONS
REQUEST INFORMATION FOR
EMISSION VALUES
COOLING SYSTEMS
No changes to standard system or values
.
FUELING RATES
Gas Flow @ 100% load (scfm)
99
136
*148
*204
*198.
*272
Gas Flow @ 75% load (scfm)
80
105
*120
*157
*160
*210
Gas Flow @ 50% load (scfm)
65
85
*120
*128
*130
*170
Diesel flow @ full load (gal/ hr)
45
62
*67.5
*93
*90
*124
Pilot fuel volume, roots injector gal/hr 3.8 4.5 *6 *7.22 *8 *9.6
* Numbers derived from 8 cylinder test data
** EMD published values
Baseline figures. System details affect actual values.

SPARK IGNITION 645 EMD

ECI CONVERSION SPECIFICATIONS - EMD 645 SPARK IGNITION ENGINE
ENGINE TYPE
645N SIP "ROOTS BLOWN"
NUMBER OF CYLINDERS
8
12
16
RPM
750
900
750
900
750
900
BHP
800
1050
1200
1500
1700
2100
BKW
570
745
865
1075
1210.
1500
EFFICIENCY
BSFC in BTU/hp-hr
.
.
.
.
.
.
100% load
7700
7980
*7600
*7880
*7600
*7880
75% load
7900
8400
*7800
*8300
*7800
*8300
50% load
8500
9000
*8400
*8900
*8400
*8900
AIR & EXHAUST SYSTEMS
Intake air temp (90oF) CFM
3040
3680
*4560
5050
***6080
6750
Exhaust temp in (oF)
750
790
*750
*780
*750
*780
Exh. volume @ Exh. temp CFM
**7550
**11000.
**14500
EMISSIONS
NMHC g/hp-hr Data not available at time of posting
CO g/hp-hr 3.6 3.1 *3.4 *2.9 *3.4 *2.9
NOx g/hp-hr 4.9 5.5 *4.7 *5.3 *4.7 *5.3
COOLING SYSTEMS
No changes to standard system or values
.
FUELING RATES
Gas Flow @ 100% load (scfm)
109
155
162
230
214
305
Gas Flow @ 75% load (scfm)
86
109
128
162
172
218
Gas Flow @ 50% load (scfm)
73
98
108
146
143
194
* Numbers derived from 8 cylinder test data
** EMD published values
Baseline figures. System details affect actual values.

TURBO CHARGED 645 EMD

ECI CONVERSION SPECIFICATIONS - EMD 645 TURBOCHARGED DUAL FUEL ENGINE
ENGINE TYPE
645- DUAL FUEL TURBOCHARGED
NUMBER OF CYLINDERS
8
12
16
20
RPM
750
900
750
900
750
900
750
900
BHP
1200
1525
1830
2305
2460
3070
3055
3600
BKW
894.84
1137.2
1364.6
1718.8
1834.4.
2239.3
2278
2684.5
EFFICIENCY
BSFC in BTU/hp-hr
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
100% load
7100
7270
7100
.7190
7000.
7020
6950
7000
75% load
7450
7920
7350
7561
7300
7950
7400
8000
50% load
9850
9920
9950
10000
9950
10750
9900
10000
AIR & EXHAUST SYSTEMS
Intake air temp (77oF) CFM
3800
5000
5400
7500
.7380
10000
9230
12500
Exhaust temp in (oF)
-
715
-
740
-
720
-
700
Exh. volume @ exh. temp CFM
7980
10500
11340
15700.
.15500
20350
19380
25100
EMISSIONS
NHMC in g/hp-hr
.
.
.
..
0.5
0.8
.
.
CO in g/hp-hr
.
.
.
.
6.4
9.1
.
.
NOx in g/hp-hr
.
.
.
.
4.5
3.6
.
.
COOLING SYSTEMS
Water flow - aftercooler circuit gal/min
90
90
150
150
200
200
200
200
HEAT REJECTION RATE .
Jacket water
28 BTU/ min/ BHP
*Aftercooler
10.7 BTU/ min/ BHP
* Baseline figures. System details affect actual values.
FUELING RATES
Gas Flow @ 100% load (scfm)
157
205
240
.306
318.
399
392
466
Gas Flow @ 75% load (scfm)
128
158
192
236
250
312
320
390
Gas Flow @ 50% load (scfm)
95
142
140
.212
.188
280
233
350
Diesel flow @ full load (gal/ hr)
64
77
96
115
128
154
160
192
Pilot fuel volume, roots injector gal/hr
3.8
4.5
6
7.22.
8
9.6
10
12
Pilot fuel volume, std. injector gal/hr
6.4
8.25
9.6
12.5
12.8
16.2
16
22.5

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ENERGY CONVERSIONS INC.
6411 Pacific Hwy. East, Tacoma, WA 98424-1587 USA
(253) 922-6670, FAX (253) 922-2258
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